The Opposition and History of Political Alliance in Pakistan


We have seen turbulent situation in the politics of Pakistan since its independence. If we look at the current political scenario of our country, our political system is divided into many political parties which are divided on the basis of their ideologies, sects, and priorities but when it comes to their concerns or that serves their political interests all the political parties are on one page recently we have exceptional example of Pakistan Democratic Movement PDM. Under the banner of PDM we have seen opposition in the mood of giving tough time to the present federal government by their strong multiparty alliance.

Pakistan Democratic Movement (PDM) has adopted 26 points resolution and at the top it describes as “selected prime minister” and calls for the end of the role of the establishment in politics of Pakistan. In the beginning Pakistan people’s party (PPP) and (PML-N) seemed to be reluctant to reach such position that could derail the democratic political process in Pakistan after the departure of General Musharraf in 2008.

Formation of Pakistan Democratic Movement PDM seems like a breath of fresh air for the opposition parties The center of attention for opposition is security establishment that is believed to be real power behind the central government. This unfamiliar stance of the opposition alliance has become a clarion call but whether this could help provoke masses it is the real test of the opposition. Making and breaking of political alliances is not a new hall mark in the politics of Pakistan. Different types of alliances were formed when political parties were not given adequate representation in parliament and democratic process hold off under authoritarian rules. Political alliances always reach the dead end once the objective are achieved by political coalition, these parties would revert to their old opponent positions and engage themselves in the struggle for the political power in the country. PDM is formed under different political scenario although political parties have competent representation in the constituent assemblies and have hold up in the power structure as well.

Pakistan have a history of political alliances. First alliance of Pakistan was formed against military rule of Ayub Khan in 1964 when five political parties formed an alliance and named it as Combined Opposition Parties (COP). It was an intimidating alliance with its roots in East and West Pakistan. Alliance put up the name of Fatima Jinnah against Ayub Khan for presidential elections. It was an unusual election in which only 80,000 basic democrats who were members of urban and regional councils and set up electoral college for assembly and presidential elections. During campaign Ayub Khan declared Fatima Jinnah as “foreign agent”. Amid the allegations general Ayub Khan won the election of In 1967 after two years’ opposition parties again formed alliance incidentally with the same name called Pakistan Democratic Movement which was renamed later as Democratic Action Committee (DAC) for the revival of democracy which was led by Nawabzada Nasrullah Khan.

In 1977 when Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto completed his five-year term and parliamentary elections were held but polls were marred by allegations of
massive rigging and several opposition parties formed alliance and named it as Pakistan National Alliance (PNA). Alliance rejected the results of the election of 1977. It was different type of alliance as it was not against military rule or establishment rule in politics it was against civilian government which had affected trading and business classes by Bhutto’s radical nationalization of industries and private enterprises. As a result of long protests of PNA Bhutto agreed for negotiations and both sides reached on holding of fresh elections.

Movement for the restoration of democracy (MRD) was formed against military regime of General Zia ul Haq. In 1983 a civil disobedient moment was launched and protestors got engaged with military confrontations with the enforcing bodies. It mainly remained Sindh based movement. In April 1986 when Benazir Bhutto returned to Pakistan she tried to start a moment for new elections but she failed. Death of general Zia Ul Haq left military to choose either to impose martial law again or to hold fresh elections so they opted to have fresh elections but they were also not prepared to shift political field to politicians of that time.

In 2003 PPP and PML-N which were rivals of each other’s but for their political interests they formed an alliance against General Musharraf and
named their alliance, Alliance for Restoration of Democracy (ARD). This alliance never took the ground position. In 2002 general elections took
place and PML-N loses in the elections PML-Q formed government.

In 2008 democracy arrived back in Pakistan in true meanings, general elections took place and PPP won those elections with heavy mandate and the democratic political system in the country had started.

What’s the reason of PDM in 2020? A new political expenditure against the federal government forced political parties to join hands. Jointly political alliance can put more pressure on PTI government. Main strategy of PDM is to smack on government before the senate elections which
would give PTI control of the upper house. Alliance seemed to hold strong position as PTI government’s performance is uninspiring.

From the past practice of alliances one can predict PDM may not bring down the government or weakens the role of establishment in politics but can put strong pressure and resistance to any authoritarian regime and unity of PDM is also one of the major challenge because when matters become critical decisions needs to be made.

Written By:
Samreen Ishaq

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